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Halachically, what is bread?
I was recently doing some baking, and it led to a household discussion: what makes bread bread, as opposed to mezunot?
I wondered if it might be about ingredients. Bread, fundamentally, is made of grain, water, salt, and a leavening agent (setting aside the special case of matzah). Bread can also contain sugar and sometimes contains eggs or fat. Those same ingredients, in different proportions, are the fundamental elements of cake. If it's about ingredients, is it about proportions somehow?
I then wondered if it might be about dough as opposed to batter. Cakes and many cookies are made in a batter that is then poured into a pan or dropped onto a cookie sheet. But there are shaped cookies, and cinnamon rolls are dough-like but aren't bread.
I then wondered if it might be about the role of the product in a meal. Until modern times bread was central to most meals, while cakes and cookies are incidental. But we say motzi even over a small piece of bread that accompanies a large meal, and we say mezunot at a breakfast consisting largely of pastries.
If I am unsure about a particular food I can look up the correct blessing. My question is: what's the guiding principle? How would we work out which blessing we should say on a particular grain product if we couldn't just look it up?